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Nowadays environmental problems have become globalized interms of their existence and impacts as well as the socioeconomic forces that generate them.Humans have faced poor environmental conditions throughout history,but it becomes more common and apparent with industrialization and urbanization.Before independence india was even unable to manufacture a needle is now furiously engaged in churning space crafts and rockets.From last five decades indias achievement in science and technology seems to be very impressive that would reveal expertise nuclear engineering ,production of steel,fertilizer ,chemicals,machine tools,construction of big dams etc.technology achievement in agriculture achievements is brought about through the productions of new yielding varities of crops via chemical fertilizers & pesticides.Due to the construction of buildings ,dams and eastablishment of power plants and industrial units have changed the man-nature realationship,which leads to extinction of number of plant and animals species and is also responsible for ecological imbalance.Rapid population growth has an adverse effect on our environment.The heavy rush of population from villages to urban areas has resulted in over crowding of cities.Rapid industrialisation and urbanization have led to an increase in population particularly in metropolitan
cities.About 72% of the air pollution is due to vehicular emissions which is responsible for twelve times high risk for respiratory problems.Plant bodies steadily accumulate these toxic substances in different parts and thus affect human health.
Population Growth and Pollution
Rapid increase in population and mismanagement have caused a severe decline in our natural resources. The availability of fresh water has declined by two thirds.The livestock grazing in the forests has increased 3-times the desirable level and the cultivated land per capita has become half as a result of population explosion.over exploitation of groundwater is an acute problem in agriculturally important areas.
Deforestation of forests
As the human and cattle population grew ,forests areas have been cleared for the agricultural and others household purposes.Dams,roadways,railways,and several other institutions have been construscted thereby decreasing the forest areas.The total are of forest has been reduced from33% to 9%.
Uncontrolled deforestation,intensive irrigation and mining activities are the major cause of land degradation.Deforestation on a massive scale has resulted in an unmanageable fast flow of water from upstream areas.The defective drainage system and encroachment on Dal lake and the closure of nallah are hindering on flood channel linking the Dal with the jehlum.contruction of hydro power projects are a threat for the nearby locality,the hydro power project of kishtwar may submerge 34 villages and is constructed on a land of more then 10 acers .
Green house effect
With the increase in the green house gases (carbon dioxide,methane,chlorofluorocarbons etc) in the atmosphere ,the temperature of earth has been rising slowly .if this trend continuous the global temperature in 2050 may rise as high as 3.5 degree Celsius above pre-industrial level and snow covered mountains melts into water thereby rising the sea level to several kilometers.use of CFC lead to cause severe diseses.
Pesticides are the most important factors in improving in improving agricultural production particularly in developing countries to sustain greater supply of food necessary to feed their growing population.pesticides are not harmful for pests only but humans also because if a human being is eating a fish ,the fish remains mostly in the water ,through that water there will the toxicity of pesticides ,because the pests after killed moving along with water due to rain and these pests r eaten by fishs and the fish is been eaten by human.
The main solution of envirovironmental problems awareness among public.Aforestation (ANN POSH TLI YELI WAN POSH) food is possible unless there are forests .less usage of personal vehicles.less usage of refrigerstors and pesticides.recyling and reusing of water paper and plastic.Dam construction should be stopped in that area where floods prediction is more of tress on a large scale,wildlife sanctuaries,zoos ,national park ,museum,for the conservation.